the Thoreau Log.
1856
Æt. 39.
1 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden… On the ice at Walden are very beautiful great leaf crystals in great profusion… A fisherman says they were much finer in the morning…” (Journal, 8:76-9).

2 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Probably the coldest morning yet, our thermometer 6º below zero at 8 A. M.; yet there was quite a mist in the air. The neighbors say it was 10º below zero at 7 A. M. P. M. - To Walden” (Journal, 8:79-81).

3 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Hill…” (Journal, 8:81-3).

4 January. Concord, Mass. 1855.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden to examine the ice… It is snapping cold this night (10 P. M.)…” (Journal, 8:83-4).

New York, N.Y. John F. Trow writes to Thoreau:

Mr. Thoreau

Dear Sir

Inclosed please find $10, for which please to send me 5 lbs of blacklead for electrotyping purposes: - such as Mr. Filmore has sent for occasionally.

Respectfully yours

John F. Trow

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 406; MS, Abernethy collection of American Literature. Middlebury College Special Collections, Middlebury, Vt.)

5 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Thermometer -9º, some say. P. M. - Up river to Hubbard’s Bridge…” (Journal, 8:85-90).

6 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Frank Morton has brought home, and I opened, that pickerel of the 4th… P. M. - To Drifting Cut… Now, at 4.15, the blue shadows are very distinct on the snow-banks…” (Journal, 8:90-3).

7 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “At breakfast time the thermometer stood at -12º. Earlier it was probably much lower. Smith’s was at -24º early this morning… P. M. - Up river…” (Journal, 8:93-6).

Thoreau writes in his journal on 18 January: “Analyzed a nest which I found January 7th in an upright fork of a red maple sapling on the edge of Hubbard’s Swamp Wood, north side, near river, about eight feet from the the ground, the deep grooves made by the twigs on each side. It may be a yellowbird’s” (Journal, 8:113).

8 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden… Monroe is fishing there…” (Journal, 8:96-7).

9 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Smith’s thermometer -16º; ours -14º at breakfast time, -6º at 9 A. M. 3 P. M. - To Beck Stow’s… When I return at 4.30, it is at -2º…” (Journal, 8:97-8).

10 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “-2º at breakfast time… P. M. - Worked on flower-press” (Journal, 8:98-101).

11 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden… To-day I burn the first stick of the wood which I bought and did not get from the river…” (Journal, 8:101-5).

12 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Moderating, though at zero at 9 A. M. P. M. - To Andromeda Swamps, measuring snow…” (Journal, 8:105-8).

13 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Sunrise - A heavy lodging snow, almost rain, has been falling… It turned to rain before noon…” (Journal, 8:108-10)

Chicago, Ill. Ralph Waldo Emerson writes to his wife Lidian: “The worst effect of the bitter cold of the last week, which reached 28 and 29 degrees below zero, where I was, has been to prevent me altogether from ending my book, & sending home the sheets to P. & S.; [Putnam & S?] which will have pestered Henry Thoreau, very likely, with vain expectation, as I begged him to look after them” (The Letters of Ralph Waldo Emerson, 5:7).

14 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Sunrise. - Snows again…” (Journal, 8:110).

15 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Hemlocks on the crust, slumping in every now and then…” (Journal, 8:111).

16 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “8 A. M. - Down railroad, measuring snow, having had one bright day since the last flake fell; but, as there was a crust which would bear yesterday (as to-day), it cannot have settled much…” (Journal, 8:111-2).

17 January. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Henry Shattuck tells me that the quails come almost every day and get some saba beans within two or three rods of his house, - some which he neglected to gather. Probably the deep snow drives them to it” (Journal, 8:112).

Before 18 January. 1856.

Rochester, Minn. Calvin Greene writes to Thoreau (The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 406-7).

18 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “J. B. Moore says that he has caught twenty pounds of pickerel in Walden in one winter… P. M. - To Walden to learn the temperature of the water…” (Journal, 8:112-6)

Thoreau also writes to Calvin Greene:

Dear Sir,

I am glad to hear that my “Walden” has interested you - that perchance it holds some truth still as far off as Michigan. I thank you for your note.

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 406-7)

19 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

P. M. - To river to get some water asclepias to see what bird’s nests are made of…

Measured again the great elm in front of Charles Davis’s on the Boston road, which he is having cut down…

As I came home through the village at 8.15 P. M., by a bright moonlight, the moon nearly full and not more than 18º from the zenith, the wind northwest, but not strong, and the air pretty cold, I saw the melon-rind arrangement of the clouds on a larger scale and more distinct than ever before… I hear that it attracted the attention of those who were abroad at 7 P. M., and now, at 9 P. M., it is scarcely less remarkable…

(Journal, 8:116-120)

20 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Up river to Hollowell place…” (Journal, 8:120-4).

21 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Four men, cutting at once, began to fell the big elm (vide 19th) at 10 A. M., went to dinner at 12, and got through at 2.30… I measured it a 3 P. M., just after the top had been cut off…” (Journal, 8:125-7).

22 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

P. M. - To Walden…

Miss Minott talks of cutting down the oaks about her house for fuel, because she cannot get her wood sledded home on account of the depth of the snow, though it lies all cut there. James, at R. W. E.’s, [Ralph Waldo Emerson] water his cows at the door, because the brook is frozen…

F. Morton [Frank Morton] hears to-day from Plymouth that three men have just caught in Sandy Pond, in Plymouth, about two hundred pounds of pickerel in two days…

(Journal, 8:127-33)

23 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Brown is filling his ice-house… Measured, this afternoon, the snow in the same fields which I measured just a week ago, to see how it had settled…” (Journal, 8:133-4).

24 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Holbrook’s elm measured to-day 11 feet 4 inches in circumference at six feet from ground, the size of one of the branches of the Davis elm (call it the Lee elm for a Lee formerly lived there)... P. M. - Up Assabet…” (Journal, 8:134-41).

25 January. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Up river. The hardest day to bear that we have had, for, being 5° at noon and at 4 P.M., there is a strong northwest wind… Pierce says it is the first day that he has been unable to work outdoors in the sun… (Journal, 8:141-2).

26 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

They have cut and sawed off the butt of the great elm at nine and a half feet from the ground, and I counted the annual rings there with the greatest ease and accuracy…

P. M. - Walked down the river as far as the south bend behind Abner Buttrick’s…

Walked as far as Flint’s Bridge with Abel Hunt, where I took to the river…

Talking with Miss Mary Emerson this evening, she said, “It was not the fashion to be so original when I was young”…

(Journal, 8:142-6)

27 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “I have just sawed a wheel an inch and three quarters thick off the end of (apparently) a stick of red oak in my pile… P. M. - Walked on the river from the old stone to Derby’s Bridge…” (Journal, 8:147-8).

28 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Snowed all day, about two inches falling. They say it snowed about the same all yesterday in New York. Cleared up at night” (Journal, 8:148).

29 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Measured the snow in the same places measured the 16th and 23rd, having had, except yesterday, fair weather and no thaw… Miss Minott has been obliged to have some of her locusts about the house cut down. She remembers when the whole top of the elm north of the road close to Dr. Heywood’s broke off, - when she was a little girl…” (Journal, 8:148-50).

30 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “8 A. M. - It has just begun to snow, - those little round dry pellets like shot. George Minott says that he was standing with Bowers (?) and Joe Barrett near Dr. Heywood’s barn in the September gale, and saw an elm, twice as big as that which broke off before his house, break off ten feet from the ground… P. M. - Measured to see what difference there was in the depth of the snow in different adjacent fields as nearly as possible alike and similarly situated…” (Journal, 8:150-5).

31 January. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Up North Branch…” (Journal, 8:155-7).

Thoreau also sends a copy of A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers to Calvin Greene (The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 407).

January. London, England. 1856.

Walden is reviewed in the Westminster Review.

1 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Up river…” (Journal, 8:158-60).

2 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal (Journal, 8:160).

3 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Up North Branch… Returning, saw near Island a shrike glide by, cold and blustering as it was, with a remarkably even and steady sail or gliding motion like a hawk… Mr. Emerson, [Ralph Waldo Emerson] who returned last week from lecturing on the Mississippi, having been gone but a month, tells me that he saw boys skating on the Mississippi and on Lake Erie and on the Hudson, and has no doubt they are skating on Lake Superior; and probably at Boston he saw them skating on the Atlantic…” (Journal, 8:160-5).

4 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Walden. I go to walk at 3 P.M., thermometer 18°…” (Journal, 8:165-6).

5 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal (Journal, 8:166-7).

6 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden… Goodwin says that he has caught two crows this winter in his traps set in water for mink, and baited with fish…” (Journal, 8:167-8).

8 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “9 A. M. - To Fair Haven Pond… Edward and Isaac Garfield fishing there, and Puffer came along, and afterward Lewis Miner with his gun… Mr. Prichard tells me that he remembers a six weeks of more uninterruptedly sever cold than we have just [had]…” (Journal, 8:169-74).

9 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Up Assabet. 3.30 P. M., thermometer 30º…” (Journal, 8:174-5).

Before 10 February. 1856.

Rochester, Minn. Calvin Greene writes to Thoreau (The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 407).

10 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden. Returning, I saw a fox on the railroad, at the crossing below the shanty site, eight or nine rods from me…” (Journal, 8:175-7).

Thoreau also writes to Calvin Greene:

Dear Sir,

I forwarded to you by mail on the 31st of January a copy of my “Week,” post paid, which I trust that you have received. I thank you heartily for the expression of your interest in “Walden” and hope that you will not be disappointed by the “Week.”

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 407-8)

11 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Fair Haven Pond by river. Israel Rice says that he does not know that he can remember a winter when we had as much snow as we have had this winter. E. Conant says as much, excepting the year when he was twenty-five, about 1803…” (Journal, 8:177).

12 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “The thermometer at 8.30 A. M., 42º…” (Journal, 8:178-9).

13 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “The thermometer at 8.30 A. M. is at zero. (At 1 P. M., 8º+.)…” (Journal, 8:179).

14 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Still colder this morning, -7º at 8.30 A. M. P. M. - To Walden… I can now walk on the crust in every direction at the Andromeda Swamp; can run and stamp without danger of breaking through…” (Journal, 8:179-82).

16 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden… Wild says it is the warmest day at 12 M. since the 22d of December… I hear the eaves running before I come out, and our thermometer at 2 P. M. is 38º…” (Journal, 8:182-3).

17 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal (Journal, 8:183).

18 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Yesterday’s snow drifting. No cars from above or below till 1 P. M.” (Journal, 8:183).

19 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal (Journal, 8:183).

20 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Up Assabet…” (Journal, 8:183-4).

22 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Assabet stone bridge and home on river…” (Journal, 8:184-5).

23 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “9 A. M. - To Fair Haven Pond, up river… At 2 P. M. the thermometer is 47º…” (Journal, 8:185-6).

24 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Dr. Jarvis tells me that he thinks there was as much snow as this in ’35, when he lived in the Parkman house and drove his sleigh from November 23rd to March 30th excepting one day” (Journal, 8:186).

25 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden and Fair Haven…” (Journal, 8:186-8).

26 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Hubbard’s Close. I see at bottom of the mill brook, below Emerson’s, two dead frogs…” (Journal, 8:188).

New Bedford, Mass. Daniel Ricketson writes to Thoreau:

Dear Thoreau, -

I often think of you and nearly as often feel the prompting to write you, and being alone in the Shanty this afternoon I have concluded to obey the prompting. I say alone, but I can fancy you seated opposite on the settee looking very Orphic or something more mystical.

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 408-11)

27 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Up Assabet… Minott says that partridges will bud on black birches as on apple trees” (Journal, 8:188-90).

New York, N.Y. Representatives from the [Anti-Slavery/Abolitionist?] Party send a form letter to Thoreau (MS, Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.).

28 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

P. M. - To Nut Meadow…

Miles is repairing the damage done at his new mill by the dam giving away…

Martial Miles, who is there, says that there are many trout in this brook…

Coombs goes to shoot partridges this evening by a far-off wood-side, and M. Miles goes home to load up, for he is going to Boston with a load of wood to-night…

Returning on the crust, over Puffer’s place, I saw a fine, plump hen hanging from an apple tree and a crow form another, probably poisoned to kill foxes with…

Stopped at Martial Miles’s to taste his cider…

(Journal, 8:190-4)

29 February. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Minott told me this afternoon of his catching a pickerel in the Mill Brook once…” (Journal, 8:194-5 ).

1 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “9 A. M. - To Flint’s Pond via Walden, by railroad and the crust… Goodwin says that somewhere where he lived they called cherry-birds ‘port-royals.’ Haynes of Sudbury brought some axe-helves which he had been making to Smith’s shop to sell to-day” (Journal, 8:196-8).

2 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Has snowed three or four inches - very damp snow - in the night; stops about 9 A. M… P. M. - Walking up the river by Pritchard’s, was surprised to see, on the snow over the river, a great many seeds and scales of birches, though the snow has so recently fallen, there had been but little wind, and it was already spring… The opening in the river at Merrick’s is now increased to ten feet in width in some places…” (Journal, 8:198-9).

New Bedford, Mass. Daniel Ricketson writes to Thoreau (Concord Saunterer 19, no. 1 (July 1987):26-7).

Washington, D.C. Horace Greeley writes to Thoreau (Studies in the American Renaissance 1982, 368; MS, private owner)

3 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “To Cambridge” (Journal, 8:199).

Thoreau also checks out Junius Moderatus Columella Of husbandry. In twelve books: and his book concerning trees. Tr. into English, David Cusick’s sketches of ancient history of the Six nations, and a volume containing New views of the origin of the tribes and natives of America by Benjamin Smith Barton, The Welch Indians by George Burder, and Observations on the Language of the Muhhakeneew Indians by Jonathan Edwards from Harvard College Library (Companion to Thoreau’s Correspondence, 291).

New Bedford, Mass. Daniel Ricketson writes to Thoreau (Studies in the American Renaissance 1982, 368; MS, private owner). Thoreau replies 5 March.

4 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “To Carlisle, surveying…” (Journal, 8:199).

New York, N.Y. Horace Greeley writes to Thoreau:

Our home is two hours (36 miles) from New York… in a quiet Quaker neighborhood… You would be out of doors nearly all pleasant days, under a pleasant shade, with a pleasant little landscape in view from the open hill just back of our house.

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 411-2)

5 March. Carlisle, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau surveys a woodlot for George F. Duren (A Catalog of Thoreau’s Surveys in the Concord Free Public Library, 6).

Concord, Mass. Thoreau writes in his journal: “Went to Carlisle, surveying…” (Journal, 8:200).

Thoreau also writes to Daniel Ricketson in reply to his letter of 3 March:

Friend Ricketson,

I have been out of town, else I should have acknowledged your letters before. Though not in the best mood for writing I will say what I can now. You plainly have a rare, though a cheap, resource in your shanty. Perhaps the time will come when every country-seat will have one - when every country-seat will be one.

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 412-4)

Ricketson replies 7 March.

6 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Up Assabet…” (Journal, 8:200).

7 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Measured snow on account of snow which fell 2d and 4th…” (Journal, 8:200-1).

New Bedford, Mass. Daniel Ricketson writes to Thoreau in reply to his letter of 5 March:

To My dear Gabriel,

Who like the one of old that appeared to Daniel, Zachariah, &c. hath in these latter days appeared unto the least of all Daniels, - Greetings, -

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 414-7)

9 March. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Thermometer at 2 P. M. 15°, sixteen inches of snow on a level in open fields, hard and dry, ice in Flint’s Pond two feet thick, and the aspect of the earth is that of the middle of January in a severe winter…” (Journal, 8:201).

New Bedford, Mass. Daniel Ricketson writes to Thoreau:

Dear T.

Your letter as usual was full of wisdom and has done me much good. [ … ]

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 418)

10 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Thermometer at 7 A. M. 6º below zero. Dr. Bartlett’s, between 6.30 and 7 A. M., was at -13º; Smith’s at -13º or -14º, at 6 A. M. P. M. - Up River to Hubbard’s Bridge…” (Journal, 8:201-4).

Thoreau also writes to Horace Greeley (The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 419). Greeley replies on 12 March.

11 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Thermometer at 7 A. M. 6º, yet, the fire going out, Sophia’s plants are frozen again. Dr. Bartlett’s was -4º… P. M. - 3.30, thermometer 24º. Cut a hole in the ice in the middle of Walden…” (Journal, 8:204-5)

12 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “The last four cold days have closed the river again against Merrick’s, and probably the few other small places which may have opened in the town, at the mouth of one or two brooks… Rufus Hosmer says he has known the ground here to be frozen four feet deep…” (Journal, 8:205-6).

Washington, D.C. Horace Greeley writes to Thoreau in reply to his letter of 10 March:

My Friend Thoreau,

I thank you for yours of the 10th. I hope we shall agree to know each other better, and that we shall be able to talk over some matters on which we agree, with others on which we may differ.

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 419)

13 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Flint’s Pond…” (Journal, 8:206-7).

Thoreau also writes to H. G. O. Blake:

Mr Blake -

It is high time I sent you a word. 

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 420-2)

14 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “3 P. M. - Up Assabet… Tapped several white maples with my knife, but find no sap flowing; but, just above Pinxter Swamp, one red maple limb was moistened by sap trickling along the bark… As I return by the old Merrick Bath Place, on the river, - for I still travel everywhere on the middle of the river, - the setting sun falls on the osier row toward the road and attracts my attention…” (Journal, 8:207-8).

15 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Put a spout in the red maple of yesterday, and hung a pail beneath to catch the sap. Mr. Chase (of the Town School), who has lived a hundred miles distant in New Hampshire, speaks of the snow-fleas as a spring phenomenon…” (Journal, 8:208).

16 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “7 A. M. - The sap of that red maple has not begun to flow yet… 2 P.M. - The red maple [sap] is now about an inch deep in the quart pail, - nearly all caught since morning… Going home, slipped on the ice, throwing the pail over my head to save myself, and spilt all but a pint…” (Journal, 8:208-9).

17 March. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Going begins to be bad; horses slump; hard turning out…” (Journal, 8:209).

18 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Up river…” (Journal, 8:209-10).

19 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden…” (Journal, 8:210-2).

20 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Trillium Wood and to Nut Meadow Brook to tap a maple, see paludina, and get elder and sumach spouts, slumping the deep snow… Father read in a paper to-day of seven hundred and forty-odd apple tree buds recently taken out of the crop of a partridge… Set a pail before coming here to catch the red maple sap, at Trillium Wood” (Journal, 8:213-6).

21 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

George Brooks, of the North Quarter, tells me that he went a-fishing at Nagog Pond on the 18th and found the ice from thirty to thirty-seven inches thick (the greater part, or all but about a foot, snow ice), the snow having blown on the ice there…

10 A. M. - To my red maple sugar camp. Found that, after a pint and a half had run from a single tube after 3 P. M. yesterday, it had frozen about a half an inch thick, and this morning a quarter of a pint more had run…

I left home about ten and got back before twelve with two and three quarters pints of sap, in addition to the one and three quarters I found collected.

I put in saleratus and a little milk while boiling, the former to neutralize the acid, and the latter to collect the impurities in a scum. After boiling it till I burned it a little, and my small quantity would not flow when cool, but was as hard as half-done candy, I put it on again, and in a minute it was softened and turned to sugar…

Had a dispute with Father about the use of my making this sugar when I knew it could be done and might have bought sugar cheaper at Holden’s. He said it took me from my studies. I said I made it my study; I felt as if I had been to a university.

(Journal, 8:216-8)

22 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To white maples and up Assabet… At the red maple which I first tapped, I see the sap still running and wetting the whole side of the tree…” (Journal, 8:218-20).

23 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden. The sugar maple sap flows, and for aught I know is as early as the red… As I was returning on the railroad, at the crossing beyond the shanty, hearing a rustling, I saw a striped squirrel amid the sedge on the bare east bank, twenty feet distant…” (Journal, 8:220-4).

24 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Thermometer 48º at noon. 9 A. M. - Start to get two quarts of white maple sap and home at 11.30…” (Journal, 8:224-6).

25 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden… Mr. Bull tells me that his grapes grow faster and ripen sooner on the west than the east side of his house” (Journal, 8:226-8).

26 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “To Cambridge… For the most part, the middle of the road from Porter’s to the College is bare and even dusty for twenty or thirty feet in width…” (Journal, 8:228-9).

Thoreau also checks out Jesuit Relation for 1639, Jesuit Relation for 1642-1643, and Observations on the inhabitants, climate, soil, rivers, productions, animals, and other matters worthy of notice. Made by Mr. John Bartram, in his travels from Pennsilvania to Onondago, Onego, and the Lake Ontario, in Canada by John Bartram from Harvard College Library (Companion to Thoreau’s Correspondence, 291).

27 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Uncle Charles [Charles Dunbar] died this morning, about midnight, aged seventy-six. The frost is now entirely out is some parts of the New Burying-Ground, the sexton tells me… Elijah Wood, Senior, about seventy, tells me he does not remember that the river was ever frozen so long, nor that so much snow lay on the ground so long…” (Journal, 8:229-30).

28 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Uncle Charles [Charles Dunbar] buried… Sam Barrett tells me that a boy caught a crow in his neighborhood the other day in a trap set for mink…” (Journal, 8:230-2).

29 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Another cold day. Scarcely melts at all. Water skimmed over in chamber, with fire” (Journal, 8:232).

30 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden and Fair Haven… I come out ot see the sand and subsoil in the Deep Cut… I go to Fair Haven via the Andromeda Swamps…” (Journal, 8:232-4).

31 March. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Peter’s via Winter Street [?]...” (Journal, 8:234-5).

1 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Down railroad, measuring snow, and to Fair Haven Hill…” (Journal, 8:236-9).

2 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “8 A. M. - To Lee’s Cliff via railroad, Andromeda Ponds, and Well Meadow… I returned down the middle of the river to near the Hubbard Bridge without seeing any opening…” (Journal, 8:239-43).

3 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

When I awoke this morning I heard the almost forgotten sound of rain on the roof…

P. M. - To Hunt’s Bridge… Coming home along the causeway, a robin sings (though faintly) as in May…

People are talking about my Uncle Charles. Minott tells how he heard Tilly Brown once asking him to show him a peculiar (inside?) lock in wrestling. “Now, don’t hurt me, don’t throw me hard.” He struck his antagonist inside his knees with his feet, and so deprived him of his legs. Hosmer remembers his tricks in the barroom, shuffling cards, etc…

(Journal, 8:243-7)

4 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Clamshell, etc…” (Journal, 8:247-9).

5 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To North River at Tarbell’s… I am sitting on the dried grass on the south hillside behind Tarbell’s house, on the way to Brown’s…” (Journal, 8:249-51).

London, England. Nathaniel Hawthorne writes in his notebook:

April 5th. - On Thursday, at eight o’clock, I went to the Reform Club, to dine with Dr. - [Charles MacKay?]…

In the course of the evening, Jerrold [Douglas Jerrold] spoke with high appreciation of Emerson; and of Longfellow, whose Hiawatha he considered a wonderful performance; and of Lowell, whose Fable for Critics he especially admired. I mentioned Thoreau, and proposed to send his works to Dr. - , who, being connected with the Illustrated News, and otherwise a writer, might be inclined to draw attention to them. Douglas Jerrold asked why he should not have them too. I hesitated a little, but as he pressed me, and would have an answer, I said that I did not feel quite so sure of his kindly judgment on Thoreau’s books; and it so chanced that I used the word “acrid,” for lack of a better, in endeavoring to express my idea of Jerrold’s way of looking at men and books.

(Passages from the English Notebooks, 2:5, 9-10)

See entry 11 April.

6 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “7 A. M. - To Willow Bay… P. M. - To Hubbard’s second grove, by river…” (Journal, 8:251-6).

7 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Launched my boat, through three rods of ice on the riverside, half of which froze last night… P. M. - Up river in boat… We see Goodwin skinning muskrats he killed this forenoon on bank at Lee’s Hill, leaving their red and mutilated carcasses behind…” (Journal, 8:256-8).

8 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

1 P. M. - To boat at Cardinal Shore, and thence to Well Meadow and back to port…

Hear the crack of Goodwin’s piece close by, just as I reach my boat. He has killed another rat. Asks if I am bound up-stream…

About 8.30 P. M., hear geese passing quite low over the river…

(Journal, 8:258-62)

9 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

7 A. M. - To Trillium Woods…

8 A. M. - By boat to V. palmata Swamp for white birch sap

As I walk in the woods where the dry leaves are just laid bare, I see the bright-red berries of the Solomon’s-seal still here and there above the leaves, affording food, no doubt, for some creatures…

When I return to my boat, I see the snow-fleas like powder, in patches on the surface of the smooth water, amid the twigs and leaves… There is no wind, and the water was perfectly smooth, - a Sabbath stillness till 11 A. M…

P. M. - Up railroad…

The thermometer at 5 P. M. is 66º+…

(Journal, 8:262-70)

10 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

P. M. - I set out to sail, the wind north-west, but it is so strong and I so feeble, that I gave it up… I reach my port, and go to Trillium Wood to get yellow birch sap…

The yellow birch sap runs very fast. I set three spouts in a tree one foot in diameter, and hung on a quart pail; then went to look at the golden saxifrage in Hubbard’s Close. When I came back, the pail was running over. this was about 3 P. M. Each spout dropped about as fast as my pulse, but when I left, at 4 P. M., it was not dropping so fast…

(Journal, 8:270-2)

11 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “8.30 A. M. - To Tarbell’s to get black and canoe birch sap…” (Journal, 8:273-8).

Liverpool, England. Nathaniel Hawthorne writes to Ticknor & Fields: “I wish you would send me two copies of Thoreau’s books - “Life in the Woods,” and the other one, for I wish to give them to two persons here” (Thoreau Society Bulletin 119 (Spring 1972):1-4).

12 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “5 P. M. - Sail on the meadow…” (Journal, 8:278-9).

13 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “8 A. M. - Up railroad… P. M. - To Walden and Fair Haven Ponds…” (Journal, 8:279-81).

14 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “8 A. M. - Up Assabet… P. M. - Sail to Hill by Bedford line…” (Journal, 8:281-4).

15 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “6.30 A. M. - To Hill… By 9 A. M. the wind has risen, the water is ruffled, the sun seems more permanently obscured, and the character of the day is changed… Ed. Emerson saw a toad in his garden to-day, and, coming home from his house at 11 P. M., a still and rather warm night, I am surprised to hear the first loud, clear, prolonged ring of a toad, when I am near Charles Davis’s house…” (Journal, 8:284-6).

16 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “5.30 A. M. - To Pinxter Swamp over Hill… P. M. - Round Walden…” (Journal, 8:286-8).

17 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Start for Conantum in boat… There is still ice in Walden” (Journal, 8:288-92).

Thoreau also writes to Eben Loomis (MS, Loomis-Wilder family papers [?]. Beinecke Library, Yale University, New Haven, Conn.).

18 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Lee’s Cliff by boat… Left boat opposite Bittern Cliff… Walden is open entirely to-day for the first time, owing to the rain of yesterday and evening…” (Journal, 8:292-4).

19 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Was awakened in the night to a strain of music dying away, - passing travellers singing… The arbor-vitæ by riverside behind Monroe’s appears to be just now fairly in blossom… Helped Mr. Emerson [Ralph Waldo Emerson] set out in Sleepy Hollow two over-cup oaks, one beech, and two arbor-vitaes…” (Journal, 8:294).

20 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Rain, rain, rain, - a northeast storm. I see that it is raising the river somewhat again. Some little islets which had appeared on the meadow northwest of Dodd’s are now fast being submerged again” (Journal, 8:294-5).

23 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Up Assabet to white cedars…” (Journal, 8:300-2).

24 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

P. M. - To mayflower…

Warren Miles at his new mill tells me that he found a mud turtle of middling size in his brook there last Monday, or the 21st…

A Garfield (I judged from his face) confirmed the story of sheldrakes killed in an open place in the river between the factory and Harrington’s, just after the first great snow-storm (which must have been early in January), when the river was all frozen elsewhere…

Goodwin shot, about 6 P. M., and brought to me a cinereous coot (Fulica Americana) which was flying over the willows at Willow Bay, where the water now runs up…

(Journal, 8:302-8)

25 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

Minott tells me of David Wheeler of the Virginia Road, who used to keep an account of the comings and goings, etc., of animals…

P. M. - To Hill by boat…

The Great Meadows now, at 3.30 P. M., agitated by the strong easterly wind this clear day, when I look against the wind with the sun behind me, look particularly dark blue…

5 P. M. - Went to see Tommy Wheeler’s bounds.

Warren Miles had caught three more snapping turtles since yesterday, at his mill, one middling-sized one adn two smaller. He said they could come down through his mill without hurt…

(Journal, 8:308-11)

26 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal (Journal, 8:311-2).

27 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Up Assabet…” (Journal, 8:312-3).

28 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Concord, Mass. Thoreau surveys the “Davis Piece” for Thomas Wheeler (Henry David Thoreau papers. Special Collections, Concord (Mass.) Free Public Library).

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Surveying the Tommy Wheeler farm… Mr. Newton, with whom I rode, thought that there was a peculiar kind of sugar maple which he called the white; knew of a few in the middle of Framingham and said that there was one on our Common… Observing the young pitch pines by the road south of Loring’s lot that was so heavily wooded, George Hubbard remarked that if they were cut down oaks would spring up, and sure enough, looking across the road to where Loring’s white pines recently stood so densely, the ground was all covered with you oaks…” (Journal, 8:313-6). [ see Field Notes of Surveys, p. 106, Concord Free Public Library ]

29 April. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “At mid-forenoon saw a fish hawk flying leisurely over the house northeasterly… P. M. - To Cedar Swamp… It was quite warm when I first came out, but about 3 P. M. I felt a fresh easterly wind, adn saw quite a mist in the distance produced by it, a sea-turn…” (Journal, 8:316-8).

30 April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau surveys the “House Lot” for Thomas Wheeler (A Catalog of Thoreau’s Surveys in the Concord Free Public Library, 12; Henry David Thoreau papers. Special Collections, Concord (Mass.) Free Public Library).

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Surveying the Tommy Wheeler farm… About 3.30 P. M., when it was quite cloudy as well as raw, and I was measuring along the river just south of the bridge, I was surprised by the great number of swallows…” (Journal, 8:318-20).

New York, N.Y. Horace Greeley writes to Thoreau:

Friend Thoreau,

Immediately on the receipt of your letter, I wrote to Mrs. Greeley its substance. She was then in Dresden, but I wrote to Paris, and she did not receive my letter till the 9th inst. I have now her response, and she is heartily gratified with the prospect that you will come to us and teach our children.

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 422-3; MS, Abernethy collection of American Literature. Middlebury College Special Collections, Middlebury, Vt.)

Late April. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Ralph Waldo Emerson writes in his journal:

As Linnaeus delighted in finding that seven stamened flower which alone gave him a seventh class, or filled a gap in his system, so I know a man who served as intermediate between two notable acquaintances of mine, not else to be approximated: & W. E. C. [William Ellery Channing] served as a companion of H. D . T; & T. of C…

It is curious that Thoreau goes to a house to say with little preface what he has just read or observed, delivers it in lump, is quite inattentive to any comment or thought which any of the company offer on the matter, nay, is merely interrupted by it, &, when he has finished his report, departs with precipitation.

(The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson, 14:74, 76)

1 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “6 P. M. - To Hill… From the hilltop I look over Wheeler’s maple swamp…” (Journal, 8:321-2).

London, England. Walden is reviewed with A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers in the Critic.

2 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “The tea lee of the yellow-rump warbler in the street, at the end of a cool, rainy day” (Journal, 8:322).

3 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “A staminate balm-of-Gilead poplar by Peter’s path…” (Journal, 8:322).

4 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Cedar Swamp via Assabet… Having fastened my boat at the maple, met, on the bank just above, Luke Dodge, whom I met in a boat fishing up that way once or twice last summer and previous years…” (Journal, 8:322-4).

6 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “To Clamshell by river…” (Journal, 8:324).

7 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “2 P. M. - To bear-berry on Major Heywood road…” (Journal, 8:324-8).

New York, N.Y. Horace Greeley writes to Thoreau (MS, private owner).

10 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden in rain. R. Rice speaks of having seen myriads of eels formerly, going down the Charles River…” (Journal, 8:328-9).

New Bedford, Mass. Daniel Ricketson writes to Thoreau (Concord Saunterer 19, no. 1 (July 1987):29; MS, private owner).

11 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Cedar Swamp up Assabet… I leave my boat in Hosmer’s poke-logan and walk up the bank…” (Journal, 8:329-32).

12 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Walked round by Dennis’s and Hollowell place with Alcott [A. Bronson Alcott]…” (Journal, 8:332-3).

A. Bronson Alcott writes in his journal:

I see Thoreau, and Cholmondeley’s [Thomas Cholmondeley] magnificent present of an Oriental library, lately come to hand from England - a gift worthy of a disciple to his master, and a tribute of admiration to Thoreau’s genius from a worthy Englishman.

Walk with Thoreau by the Cottage and Hollowell Place, and dine with him…

Meet my friends and former neighbors in Emerson’s [Ralph Waldo Emerson] parlour’s - Miss Mary Emerson, Mrs. Browne, Miss Jane Whitney, Mrs. Brooks, Mrs. Ripley, Thoreau, Sanborn, and many more, and talk pleasantly on Society - Emerson, Thoreau, Mrs. Emerson, Mrs. Ripley, Sanborn contributing to the entertainment.

(The Journals of Amos Bronson Alcott, 282)

13 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Up river to Kalmia glauca Swamp… Wheeler says that many a pasture, if you plow it up after it has been lying still ten years, will produce an abundant crop of wormwood, and its seeds must have lain in the ground…” (Journal, 8:333-5).

A. Bronson Alcott writes in his journal: “This morning… see Thoreau again. He lends me from the Cholmondeley Collection The Bhagavad Gita, or a Discourse between Krishna and Arjuna on Divine Matters, a Sanskrit Philosophical Poem, Translated, with copious notes, an Introduction on Sanskrit Philosophy, and other matter, by J. Cockburn Thomas, Hertford, England, 1855” (The Journals of Amos Bronson Alcott, 282).

14 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “…Flood tells me he saw cherry-birds on the 12th of April in Monroe’s” (Journal, 8:336).

15 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To beeches… At Heywood Spring I see a clumsy woodchuck, nor, at 4 P. M., out feeding… ” (Journal, 8:336-8).

16 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Rainy day” (Journal, 8:338).

17 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To my boat at Cardinal Shore, hence to Lee’s Cliff…” (Journal, 8:338-42).

18 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Ed Emerson says he saw at Medford yesterday many ground-birds’ nests and eggs under apple trees… R. W. E. [Ralph Waldo Emerson] says that Agassiz tells him he has had turtles six or seven years, which grew so little, compared with others of the same size killed at first, that he thinks they may live four or five hundred years. P. M. - To Kalmia Swamp…” (Journal, 8:342-6).

19 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Cedar Swamp… Returning, stopped at Barrett’s sawmill while it rained a little… Said that about as many logs were brought to his mill as ten years ago, - he did not perceive the difference, - but they were not so large, and perhaps they went further for them…” (Journal, 8:346-8).

Thoreau gives $1 to help fund a tour of England for A. Bronson Alcott (Ralph Waldo Emerson journals and notebooks. Houghton Library, Harvard University, Cambridge, Mass.).

20 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Was awaked and put into sounder sleep than ever early this morning by the distant crashing of thunder, and now, - P.M. - To Beck Stow’s… Haynes the carpenter calls that large glaucous puff that grows on the Andromeda paniculata, swamp-apple…” (Journal, 8:349-51).

Concord, Mass. Ralph Waldo Emerson writes in his journal on 21 May:

Yesterday to the Sawmill Brook with Henry. He was in search of yellow violet (pubescens) and menyanthes which he waded into the water for. & which he concluded, on examination, had been out five days. Having found hsi flowers, he drew out of his breast pocket his diary & read the names of all the plants that should bloom on this day, 20 May; whereof he keeps account as a banker when his notes fall due. rubus triflora, guerens, vaccinium, &c. The cypropedium not due ’till tomorrow. Then we diverged to the brook, where was viburnum dentatum, arrowhead. But his attention was drawn to the redstart which flew about with its cheah cheah chevet, & presently to two fine grosbeaks rosebreasted, whose brilliant scarlet “made the rash gazer wipe his eye,”1 & which he brought nearer with his spy glass, & whose fine clear note he compares to tthat of a “tanager who has got rid of his hoarseness,” then he heard a note which he calls that of the nightwarbler, a bird he has never identified, has been in search of for twelve years; which, always, when he sees, is in the act of diving down into a tree or bush, & which ’tis vain to seek; the only bird that sings indifferently by night & by day. I told him, he must beware of finding & booking him, lest life should have nothing more to show him. He said, “What you seek in vain for half your life, one day you come full upon all the family at dinner. - You seek him like a dream, and as soon as you find him, you become his prey.” He thinks he could tell by the flowers what day of the month it is, within two days. We found saxifraga Pennsylvanica and chrysosplenium oppositifolium, by Everett’s spring, and stellaria & cerastium and arabis rhemboidea & veronica anagallis, which he thinks handsomer than the cultivated veronica, forget me not. Solidago odora, he says, is common in Concord, & penny royal he gathers in quantity as herbs every season. Shad blossom is no longer a pyrus, which is now confined to choke berry. Shad blossom is Amelanchier botryapium & A., Shad blossom because it comes when the shad come.

Water is the first gardener; he always plants grasses & flowers about his dwelling. There came Henry with music-book under his arm, to press flowers in; with telescope in his pocket, to see the birds, & microscope to count stamens; with a diary, jacknife, & twine, in stout shoes, & strong grey trowsers, ready to brave the shrub oaks & smilax, & to climb the tree for a hawk’s nest. His strong legs when he wades were no insignificant part of his armour. Two Alders we have, and one of them is here on the northern border of its habitat.

(The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson, 14:90-2)

1 George Herbert, “Virtue”: “Sweet rose, whose hue, angry and brave, / Bids the rash gazer wipe his eye; / Thy root is ever in its grave, / And thou must die.”

Circa 21 May. Concord, Mass.

Thoreau receives a letter from Calvin Greene, asking him to send a copy of A Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers to James Newberry in Rochester, Michigan, which Thoreau does on this day (The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 425).

21 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Saw Mill Brook…” (Journal, 8:351-2).

Thoreau also writes to H. G. O. Blake:

Mr. Blake,

I have not for a long time been putting such thoughts together as I should like to read to the company you speak of. I have enough of that sort to say, or even read, but not time now to arrange it. Something I have prepared might prove for their entertainment or refreshment perchance, but I would not like to have a hat carried round for it.

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 423-4)

22 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Viola Muhlenbergii, which is abundantly out…” (Journal, 8:352-3).

23 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Heywood Spring… After sunset on river…” (Journal, 8:353-4).

24 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Pratt [Minot Pratt] gave me the wing of a sparrow (?) hawk which he shot some months ago… Humphrey Buttrick says that he hears the note of the woodcock form the village in April and early in May… Thermometer at 1 P. M., 94º in the shade!…” (Journal, 8:354-5).

Thoreau also draws a plan of cemetery lots for a Mrs. Whitman (Henry David Thoreau papers. Special Collections, Concord (Mass.) Free Public Library).

Nathaniel Hawthorne writes in his journal: “Mr. [Alexander] Ireland… is one of the few [English] men (almost none, indeed) who have read Thoreau’s books” (The English Notebooks, 351).

25 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “10 A. M. - To Fair Haven Pond with Blake [H. G. O. Blake] and Brown [Theophilus Brown]…” (Journal, 8:355-6). 

27 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “To Kalmia Swamp with Sanborn [Franklin B. Sanborn]…” (Journal, 8:356).

Thoreau also writes to John Langdon Sibley:

Dear Sir

I return herewith the following books to the Library - viz - “Columella of Husbandry” 1. v. “Pennsylvania, Ohio, & Delaware” 1. v. Jesuit Relations for 1639 & 1642 & 3 2. vols.

Yrs

Henry D. Thoreau

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 425)

28 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Rainy. To Painted-Cup Meadow…” (Journal, 8:356-7).

29 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Ride to Painted-Cup Meadow…” (Journal, 8:357-8).

30 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Linnaea Wood-lot… Return via Clamshell… Frank Harding caught five good-sized chivin this cold day from the new stone bridge…” (Journal, 8:358-9).

Concord, Mass. Ralph Waldo Emerson writes to his brother William, concerning the death of their brother Bulkeley: “Mr Thoreau kindly undertook the charge of the funeral and Rev Mr Reynolds [Grindall Reynolds] to whom I had explained what I thought necessary, & whom Lidian visited afterwards lest he should not do justice to Bulkeley’s virtues, officiated” (The Letters of Ralph Waldo Emerson, 5:149).

31 May. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Clintonia Swamp (Hubbard’s) Grove… Sundown. - To Hill and Island… As I return in the dusk, many nighthawks, with their great spotted wings, are circling low over the river, as the swallows were when I went out…” (Journal, 8:359-60).

Thoreau also writes to John Russell:

Mr Russell

Dear Sir,

I shall be very glad to help you collect the Nymphaeaceae &c, and to spend another day with you on our river, & in our fields and woods.

(Concord Saunterer 15, no. 2 (Summer 1980):1-2; MS, private owner)

Thoreau also writes to Calvin Greene:

Dear Sir,

I forwarded by mail a copy of my “Week” post paid to James Newberry, Merchant, Rochester, Oakland Co Mich, according to your order, about ten days ago, or on the receipt of your note.

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 425-6)

See entry 12 June.

1 June. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden…” (Journal, 8:361-2).

2 June. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - With R. W. E. [Ralph Waldo Emerson] to Perez Blood’s auction… 5 P. M. - To Azalea nudiflora, which is in prime…” (Journal, 8:362-3).

Concord, Mass. Ralph Waldo Emerson writes in his journal:

The finest day the high noon of the year, went with Thoreau in a wagon to Perez Blood’s auction; found the myrica flowering; it had already begun to shed its pollen one day, the lowest flowers being effete; found the English hawthorn on Mrs Ripley’s hill, ready to bloom; went up the Asabet, & found the Azalea Nudicaulis in full bloom; a beautiful show, the viola muhlenbergi, the ranunculus recurvatus; sas swamp white oak, (chestnut-like leaves) white maple, red maple, - no chestnut oak on the river - Henry told his story of the Ephemera, the manna of the fishes, which falls like a snow storm one day in the year, only on this river, not on the Concord, high up in the air as he can see, & blundering down to the river, - (the shad-fly,) the true angler’s fly; the fish die of repletion when it comes, the kingfishers wait for their prey.1 Around us the pepeepee of the king bird kind was noisy. He showed the history of the river from the banks, the male & female bank, the pontederia keeps the female bank, on whichever side.

(The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson, 14:93-4)

1 See entry 6 June 1857.

3 and 4 June. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau surveys a meadow and woodlots for John Hosmer (A Catalog of Thoreau’s Surveys in the Concord Free Public Library, 8; Henry David Thoreau papers. Special Collections, Concord (Mass.) Free Public Library).

3 June. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Surveying for John Hosmer beyond pail-factory. Hosmer says that seedling white birches do not grow larger than your arm, but cut them down and they spring up again and grow larger…” (Journal, 8:363-4).

4 June. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Surveying for J. Hosmer [John Hosmer]… Anthony Wright says that he used to get slippery elm bark from a place southwest of Wetherbee’s Mill, about ten rods south of the brook…” (Journal, 8:364-5)

5 June. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Indian Ditch… Return by J. Hosmer Desert” (Journal, 8:365-7).

6 June. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Andromeda Ponds… J. Hosmer, who is prosecuting Warner for flowing his land, says that the trees are not only broken off when young by weight of ice, but, being rubbed and barked by it, become warty or bulge out ther” (Journal, 8:367-8).

8 June. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Cedar Swamp… When I returned to my boat, about five, the weather being mizzling enough to require an umbrella, with an easterly wind and dark for the hour, my boat being by chance at the same place where it was in ’54, I noticed a great flight of ephemeræ over the water…” (Journal, 8:368-72).

9 June. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Corner Spring… 6.30 P. M. - Up Assabet…” (Journal, 8:372-3).

10 June. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “8 A. M. - Getting lily pads opposite Badger’s… P. M. - To Dugan Desert…” (Journal, 8:373-5).

11 June. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Flint’s Pond… Rice tells me he found a turtle dove’s nest on an apple tree near his farm in Sudbury two years ago, with white eggs…” (Journal, 8:375-7).

12 June. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Conantum on foot. Sophia has sent me, in a letter from Worcester, part of an orchid in bloom, apparently Platanthera Hookeri (?), or smaller round-leafed orchis, from the Hermitage Wood, so called, northeast of the town…” (Journal, 8:377).

Thoreau also sends copies of A Week on the Concord and Merrimack River and Walden to California for Calvin Greene (The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 426).

13 June. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “To Worcester. See the common iris in meadow in Acton. Brown [Theophilus Brown] shows me from his window the word “guano” written on the grass in a field near the hospital, say three quarters of a mile distant…” (Journal, 8:377-8).

Before 14 June. 1856.

Concord, Mass. Ralph Waldo Emerson writes in his journal: “I go for those who have received a retaining fee to this party of freedom, before they came into this world. I would trust Garrison, I would trust Henry Thoreau, that they would make no compromises. I would trust Horace Greeley, I would trust my venerable friend Mr Hoar, that they would be stanuch for freedom to the death; but both of these would have a benevolent credulity in the honesty of the other party, that I think unsafe” (The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson, 14:95).

14 June. Worcester, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Walk to Hermitage Woods with Sophia and aunts…” (Journal, 8:378).

15 June. Worcester, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

Mrs. Brown [Sarah Ann Brown] reads a letter from John Downs in Philadelphia to Mr. Brown, [Theophilus Brown] in which he remembers his early youth in Shrewsbury and the pout accompanied by her young. A Miss Martha Le Barron describes to me a phosphorescence on the beach at night in Narragansett Bay…

P. M. - To some woods southwest of Worcester…

A night-flowering cereus opens three or four times at a Mrs. Newton’s while I am there…

(Journal, 8:378-9)

16 June. Worcester, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Saw at the Natural History Rooms a shell labelled Haliotis splendens, apparently same with mine from Ricketson’s [Daniel Ricketson] son, with holes and green reflections. To Purgatory in Sutton: by railroad to Wilkinsonville in the northeast corner of Sutton (thirty cents) and by buggy four of rive miles to Purgatory in the south or southeast part of the town, some twelve miles from Worcester…” (Journal, 8:379-80).

17 June. Worcester, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

Go to Blake’s [H. G. O. Blake]…

A. M. - Ride with him and Brown [Theophilus Brown] and Sophia [Sophia Thoreau] round a part of Quinsigamond Pond in Shrewsbury…

P. M. - Went to Rev. Horace James’s reptiles (Orthodox).…

At Natural History Rooms, a great cone from a southern pine and a monstrous nutshell from the East Indies (?)…

(Journal, 8:380-1)

Daniel Ricketson writes in his journal:

Left Newport this morning at five o’clock for Concord, Mass., via Providence and Boston, and arrived at C. about 12 M. The sail up the Providence or Blackstone River was very fine, the morning being clear and the air very refreshing. My object in coming to Concord was to see H. D. Thoreau, but unfortunately I found him on a visit at Worcester, but I was received with great kindness and cordiality by his father and mother, and took tea with them. Mrs. Thoreau, like a true mother, idolizes her son, and gave me a long and interesting account of his character. Mr. Thoreau, a very short old gentleman, is a pleasant person. We took a short walk together after tea, returned to the Middlesex Hotel at ten. Mrs. T. gave me a long and particular account of W. E. Channing, who spent so many years here.

(Daniel Ricketson and His Friends, 285)

18 June. Worcester, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Hale says the tiarella grows here, and showed it to me pressed; also Kalmia glauca formerly hobble-bush still, and yellow lady’s slipper near the Quarry” (Journal, 8:382).

19 June. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Looked at a collection of the rarer plants made by Higginson and placed at the Natural History Rooms… On way to Concord see mountain laurel out in Lancaster…” (Journal, 8:382).

Concord, Mass. Daniel Ricketson writes in his journal:

Walked after breakfast with Mr. Thoreau, Senr., by appointment to the cemetery and over the ridge to see Mr. Hosmer, an intelligent farmer. Purchased the life of Mary Ware, and a framed portrait of Charles Sumner, the former for Mrs. Thoreau, and the latter for her daughter, Sophia.

H. D. Thoreau and his sister S. arrived home this noon from a visit to Worcester. Passed a part of the afternoon on the river with H. D. T. in his little boat, - discussed [William Ellery] Channing part of the time. Took tea and spent the evening at Mr. T’s. (Item) H. D. T. says buy “Margaret.”

(Daniel Ricketson and His Friends, 285-6)

Ricketson gives Thoreau’s mother a copy of Memoir of Mary L. Ware by Edward B. Hall with the inscription, “To Henry D. Thoreau’s mother, with the kind regards of the their friend, Danl. Ricketson, Concord, June, 19th 1856” (Joel Myerson Collection of Nineteenth-century American Literature, University of South Carolina, Columbia, S.C.).

20 June. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “A. M. - To Baker Farm with Ricketson [Daniel Ricketson]…” (Journal, 8:382-4).

Concord, Mass. Daniel Ricketson writes in his journal:

6 P. M. Just returned from a sail on the river with Thoreau, having been all day. Bathed twice, visited the Baker farm and the Conantum farmhouse. Just going out to tea with the Thoreaus to Mrs. Brook’s, an abolitionist.

(Daniel Ricketson and His Friends, 286)

21 June. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden…” (Journal, 8:384).

Thoreau also writes to Calvin Greene:

Dear Sir

On the 12 ult I forwarded the two books to California, observing your directions in every particular, and I trust that Uncle Sam will discharge his duty faithfully. While in Worcester this week I obtained the accompanying daguerreotype - which my friends think is pretty good - though better looking that I.

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 426)

Daniel Ricketson writes in his journal:

Exceedingly warm at Concord. Thermometer at 93 in the shade north side Mr. Thoreau’s house, 12 M., rose to 97; spent the forenoon with Mr. Thoreau, Senr., walked down by the river and sat under the shade of the willows by the bank; walked to Walden Pond with H. D. T. this P. M. ; bathed, and crossed the pond with him in a boat we found upon the shore. Saw the Scarlet Tanager by the aid of Thoreau’s glass, a bird I had never seen before… R. W. Emerson [Ralph Waldo Emerson] called upon me with evening; talked of Channing [William Ellery Channing] and the Kansas affairs. Walked home with him and with Thoreau. This has been extremely warm, thermometer at 99 at 5 P. M. north side shade of Mr. T.’s house.

(Daniel Ricketson and His Friends, 286-7)

22 June. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Walden. Ricketson [Daniel Ricketson] says that they say at New Bedford that the song sparrow says, Maids, maids, maids, - hang on your tea-kettle-ettle-ettle-ettle-ettle. R. W. E. [Ralph Waldo Emerson] imitates the wood thrush by he willy willy - ha willy willy - O willy O…” (Journal, 8:384).

Daniel Ricketson writes in his journal:

The Concord, or Musketaquid or grass-grown river, as my friend H. D. T. has learned its meaning from the Indians, runs along the edge of the village, which is chiefly on one street, although there are several others. It is a fine stream, and remarkable for its gentle current. With Thoreau I rowed up the river several miles, and had many pleasant views from different points…

Spent the forenoon in H. D. T.’s room, copying titles of books, &c. - called by invitation at R. W. Emerson’s at 4 P. M. with Thoreau - on the way called on Mrs. Brooks, the abolitionist. Walked to Walden Pond with Emerson and his children, and Thoreau; took tea at E’s. Thoreau returned with Ellen and Edith E. while Mr. E., his son Eddy, 12 years of age, and myself stopped and bathed in Walden Pond. Our conversation was principally upon birds and flowers that we met upon the way. Met Mrs. Ripley, Mrs. Goodwin, Miss Ripley and Dr. C. Francis at Mr. E.’s on our return. Returned at 9 with T. to his father’s and to bed at ten.

(Daniel Ricketson and His Friends, 288-9)

23 June. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “To New Bedford with Ricketson [Daniel Ricketson]… His son Walton showed me one of four perfectly white eggs taken from a hole in an apple tree eight feet from ground…” (Journal, 8:384-5).

New Bedford, Mass. Daniel Ricketson writes in his journal: “Left Concord this A.M. with Henry D. Thoreau at 8 1/2 o’clock, and arrived home at 1 1/2 P. M., stopping one hour in Boston, visiting the Natural History rooms with H. D. T. who is a member of the Society… My visit to Concord from which I have just returned will long be remembered with pleasure. There I met several cultured and congenial people and particularly enjoyed my walks, rambles and boat excursions with my friend Thoreau” (Daniel Ricketson and His Friends, 289).

24 June. New Bedford, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

To Sassacowen Pond and to Long Pond…

Lunched by the spring on the Brady farm in Freetown…

Went off to Nelson’s Island (now Briggs’s) in Long Pond by a long, very narrow bar (fifty rods I paced it), in some places the water over shoes and the sand commonly only three or four feet wide… R. [Daniel Ricketson] dreams of residing here.

(Journal, 8:385-6)

Daniel Ricketson writes in his journal: “Thermometer at 48 at 5 A. M. Rose early and found Thoreau walking in the garden - assisted him in fitting a press for his plants. Left home about 10 with H. D. T. for Long Pond - on the way spent an hour at Sassaquin or Tobey’s pond, dined under an apple-tree near a spring on the Brady farm, after which bathed upon the south shore of Long Pond, and visited Nelson’s Island, one of the most beautiful and retired spots in this part of the county, made a sketch of the back side of the Brady house, and the barn, in Thoreau’s note-book. Home at 7; went with Billy and the old buggy wagon” (Daniel Ricketson and His Friends, 289-90).

25 June. New Bedford, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Called at Thomas A. Greene’s in New Bedford, said to be best acquainted with the botany of this vicinity (also acquainted with shells, and somewhat with geology)… Brewer, in a communication to Audubon (as I read in his hundred(?)-dollar edition), makes two kinds of song sparrows, and says that Audubon has represented one, the most common about houses…” (Journal, 8: 386-7).

Daniel Ricketson writes in his journal: “At home and about this forenoon, Thoreau busy collecting marine plants from the river side. Went to town this P. M. with Thoreau. Called at Thomas A. Greene’s with T. who wished to confer with him about rare plants and those peculiar to this section - afterwards went to the city library and examined Audubon’s Ornithology for a species of the sparrow which we have on our place and which as yet I have been unable to identify with any described in Wilson or Nuttall” (Daniel Ricketson and His Friends, 290).

26 June. New Bedford, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

Rode to Sconticut Neck or Point in Fair Haven, five or six miles, and saw, apparently, the F. savanna near their nests (my seringo note), restlessly flitting about me from rock to rock within a rod…

Saw a farmer on the Neck with one of Palmer’s patent wood legs. He went but little lame and said that he did his own mowing and most of his ordinary farm work, though plowing in the present state of his limb, which had not yet healed, wrenched him some…

This Neck, like the New Bedford country generally, is very flat to my eye, even as far inland as Middleborough. When R. [Daniel Ricketson] decided to take another road home from the latter place, because it was less hilly, I said I had not observed a hill in all our ride… I had been expecting to find the aletris about New Bedford, and when taking our luncheon on this neck what should I see rising above the luncheon-box, between me and R., but what I knew must be the Aletris farinosa

Talked with a farmer by name of Slocum, hoeing on the Neck, a rather dull and countrified fellow for our neighborhood, I should have said…

Heard of, and sought out, the hut of Martha Simons, the only pure-blooded Indian left about New Bedford… The squaw was not at home when we first called… She ere long came in from the seaside, and we called again. We knocked and walked in, and she asked us to sit down…

A conceited old Quaker minister, her neighbor, told me with a sanctified air, “I think that the Indians were human beings; dost thee not think so?” He only convinced me of his doubt and narrowness.

(Journal, 8:387-92)

Daniel Ricketson writes in his journal: “Made an excursion to the end of Sconticut Neck with my friend Thoreau, in search of marine plants, &c. On our return called to see an old Indian woman by the name of Martha Simonds living alone in a little dwelling of but one room… Arrived home from our excursion to Sconticut about 5” (Daniel Ricketson and His Friends, 290).

27 June. New Bedford, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

P. M. - Went with R. [Daniel Ricketson] and his boys in the Steamer Eagle’s Wing, with a crowd and band of music, to the northeast of Naushon, “Woods Hole,” some fifteen miles from New Bedford; about two hours going. Talked with a Mr. Congdon, cashier of a bank and a vegetarian…

A Mr. Wall, artist, at New Bedford, told me of a high pine wood or swamp some miles down Naushon with “storks’ nests” (!) in the pines…

Returning, I caught sight of Gay Head and its lighthouse with my glass, between Pasque and Nashawena…

(Journal, 8:392-4)

Daniel Ricketson writes in his journal: “Spent the forenoon in the Shanty with Thoreau, engaged in ornithology principally and the philosophy of life generally. Went to Naushon Island in the afternoon in the steamer ‘Eagle Wing’ and returned at 6 1/2 in company with our friend H. D. Thoreau, Arthur, and Walton” (Daniel Ricketson and His Friends, 290-1).

28 June. New Bedford, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - I paddled up the Acushnet, about a mile above the paper-mill, as far as the ruined mill, in Walton’s [Walton Ricketson] skiff with Arthur [Arthur Ricketson]” (Journal, 8:394).

Daniel Ricketson writes in his journal: “Thoreau and Arthur went up the river botanizing” (Daniel Ricketson and His Friends, 294).

29 June. New Bedford, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

P. M. - Bathed in the creek, which swarms with terrapins, as the boys called them… A man by the riverside told us that he had two young ducks which he let out to seek their food along the riverside at low tide that morning… Bathed again near Dogfish Bar… I probably found an Indian’s bone at Throgg’s Point, where their bodies have been dug up.

(Journal, 8:394-5)

Daniel Ricketson writes in his journal: “Walked this P. M. with Thoreau down as far as the Indian burial hill on Coggeshall farm, and after tea rode with him round Tarkiln Hill and home by Nash Road; talked widely and retired at 10” (Daniel Ricketson and His Friends, 294-5).

30 June. New Bedford, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

A. M. - To Middleborough ponds in the new town of Lakeville (some three years old)…

Borrowed Roberts’s boat, shaped like a pumpkin-seed, for we wished to paddle on Great Quitticus. We landed and lunched on Haskell’s Island, which contains some twenty-five or thirty acres…

Rode on to the old Pond Meeting-house, whence there is a fine view of Assawampsett…

Two men spoke of loon’s eggs on a rocky isle in Little Quitticus…

As we were returning, a Mr. Sampson was catching perch at the outlet from Long Pond, where it emptied into Assawampsett with a swift current…

(Journal, 8:395-7)

Daniel Ricketson writes in his journal: “Rode to Middleboro Ponds with Thoreau. Visited Haskell’s Island, so-called, in Great Quitticus Pond, from where we bathed and ate our dinner upon the west shore of the Island, then rode to Assawampsett and visited the old meeting-house now fast falling to decay and abuse, and King Philip’s look-out, so called” (Daniel Ricketson and His Friends, 295).

July. Boston, Mass. 1856.

An article on “The Literature of Friendship” in The North American Review mentions Thoreau, along with many other notable literary figures: “But perhaps the worthiest paper on the subject is contained in the ‘Wednesday’ of Thoreau’s ‘Week on the Concord and Merrimack Rivers,’ - a composition which every one enamored of the theme should reperuse and ponder. ‘Friendship is evanescent in every man’s experience, and remembered like heat-lightning in past summers.’ ‘Of what use is the friendliest disposition, if no hours are given to friendship?’” (The North American Review, vol. 83 issue 172 (July 1856):110-1).

1 July. New Bedford, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Paddled on the Acushnet. Passed through some schools of fishes which were rippling the surface about us in midstream… Walton said afterward that they were menhaden” (Journal, 8:398).

Daniel Ricketson writes in his journal:

Rode to town this morning with Thoreau, visited Arnold’s garden with him. Channing [William Ellery Channing] came up to tea to see Thoreau and spend the evening and night. Thoreau and Channing spent the night in the Shanty. Retired at 10.

(Daniel Ricketson and His Friends, 295)

2 July. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “Return to Concord. Looked at the birds in the Natural History Rooms in Boston…” (Journal, 8:398).

New Bedford, Mass. Daniel Ricketson writes in his journal:

Thermometer at about 50, 5 A. M. My friend H. D. Thoreau left in the early train this morning for his home at Concord, Mass. Took him to the Tarkiln Hill station. Channing, [William Ellery Channing] who spent the night with us, left about 9 to walk to town. During the visit of my friend Thoreau we have visited the Middleborough Ponds twice, the Island Naushon, Sconticut Neck, etc. His visit has been a very pleasant one to myself and family. He is the best educated man I know, and I value his friendship very much. His health is quite poor at present, and I fear he will hardly reach old age, which from his unconcern in regard to it the more strengthens my fears for his loss.

(Daniel Ricketson and His Friends, 295-6)

3 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Assabet River…” (Journal, 8:398-9).

5 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “A. M. - To Loring’s Pond…” (Journal, 8:399-401).

6 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Assabet Bath… Crossed the river at bath place…” (Journal, 8:401).

7 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Gowing’s Swamp…” (Journal, 8:401-2).

8 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “3 P. M. - To Baker Farm by boat… Sophia saw this afternoon two great snap-turtles fighting near the new stone bridge… Sam Wheeler, who did not know there were snapping turtles here, says he saw opposite to his boarding-house, on the sidewalk, in New York, the other day, a green turtle which weighed seven hundred and twenty pounds…” (Journal, 8:402-4).

9 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal on 10 July: “Yesterday a heavy rain” (Journal, 8:404).

10 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “A. M. - To Laurel Glen… 5 P. M. - Up Assabet. As I was bathing under the swamp white oaks at 6 P. M., I heard a suppressed sound often repeated, like, perhaps, the working of beer through a bung-hole, which I had already suspected to [be] produced by owls… Proceeding a dozen rods up-stream on the south side, toward where a catbird was incessantly mewing, I found myself suddenly within a rod of a gray screech owl sitting on an alder bough with horns erect, turning its head from side to side and up and down, and peering at me in that same ludicrously solemn and complacent way that I have noticed in one in captivity…” (Journal, 8:404-6).

11 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “A. M. - To Tarbell Swamp Hill all day with W. E. C. [William Ellery Channing]. Landed at path end, Great Meadows... Bathed and lunched under the oak at Tarbell’s first shore…” (Journal, 8:406-7).

12 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Down Turnpike to Red Lily Meadow…” (Journal, 8:408-9).

Mary Moody Emerson writes to Thoreau:

Will my young friend visit me tomorrow early as he can? this evening my Sister [Sarah Alden] Ripley sends word she will com, and go to see Mrs. William Emerson, who is in town. I wish for your writings, hoping they will give me a clearer clue to your faith, - its nature, its destination and object. 

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 427)

13 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Corner Spring… ” (Journal, 8:409-10).

14 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Muhlenbergii Brook… Anthony Wright found a lark’s nest with fresh eggs on the 12th in E. Hubbard’s meadow by ash tree… While drinking at Assabet Spring in woods, noticed a cherry-stone on the bottom…” (Journal, 8:411).

15 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Hubbard’s Close and Walden…” (Journal, 8:411-3).

16 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “See several bullfrogs lying fully out on pads at 5 P. M…” (Journal, 8:413).

17 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal:

P. M. - To Water Dock Meadow and Linnæa Hillside…

Bathed at Clamshell…

Evening by river to Ed. Hosmer’s… Returning after ten, by moonlight, see the bullfrogs lying at full length on the pads where they trump.

(Journal, 8:414-6)

Mary Moody Emerson writes to Thoreau:

Dear Henry:

I expect to set out to-morrow morning for Goshen, - a place where wit and gaiety never come “that comes to all.” But hope lives, and travels on with the speed of suns and stars; and when there are none but clouds in the sky,

(The Correspondence of Henry David Thoreau, 428)

18 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To Wheeler meadow to look at willows…” (Journal, 8:416-7).

19 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Marlborough Road via railroad and Dugan wood-lot… Plucked a handful of gooseberries at J. P. B.’s bush…” (Journal, 8:417).

20 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - Up Assabet…” (Journal, 8:420).

21 July. Concord, Mass. 1856.

Thoreau writes in his journal: “P. M. - To A. Wheeler’s grape meadow… These hot afternoons I go panting through the close sprout-lands and copses, as now from Cliff Brook to Wheeler meadow, and occasionally come to sandy places a few feet in diameter where the partridges have dusted themselves… Mr. Russell [John Russell] writes to-day that he visited the locality of the Magnolia glauca the 18th, on Cape Cod, and saw lingering still a few flowers and flower-buds…” (Journal, 8:420-2).




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