From: The Life of Henry David Thoreau (1890)
Author: Henry S. Salt
Published: Richard Bentley & Son 1890 London


  It is said that the name Thoreau was common in the annals of Tours several hundred years ago. The earliest fact that is known of Henry Thoreau’s ancestry is that his great-grandparents, Philip Thoreau and Marie le Galais, were well-to-do inhabitants of St. Relier, Jersey, in the middle of the last century. They had several sons, one of whom, John Thoreau, emigrated to New England about 1773, when twenty years old, and married a Scotchwoman, Jane Bums, at Boston. The offspring of this marriage was one son, John Thoreau the younger, the father of the Concord philosopher, and four daughters, one of whom, Maria Thoreau, lived till 1881. The Thoreau family is now extinct both in Jersey and New England.


  There are three portraits of Thoreau which have been reproduced in various forms.

(1) A crayon done by S. W. Roose in 1854, before the time when Thoreau wore a beard. This is the one commonly engraved, as in the first edition of Excursions in Field and Forest, 1863, and in the frontispiece to this volume.

(2) A photograph by Critcherson, taken at Worcester, Massachusetts, in 1857 or 1858 (not in 1861, as has been wrongly stated). Thoreau here appears with a fringe of beard on his throat, but with lips and chin shaven. An engraving from this portrait was given in the Century magazine, July 1882.

(3) An ambrotype photograph, taken by Dunshee at New Bedford, at the request of Mr. Daniel Ricketson, in August 1861, when Thoreau was wearing a full beard and moustache. This is the original of the portrait prefixed to Mr. Sanborn’s Thoreau; see also the Critic, March 26, 1881. From this photograph a bas-relief medallion head, in profile, life-size, was produced by Mr. Walton Ricketson, the son of Thoreau’s friend, in which Thoreau’s firm profile and strongly-marked aquiline features are well shown. An engraving from a photograph of this medallion may be seen in the Welcome, Nov. 1887.

  It is stated in the Critic, April 9, 1881, by Mr. William Sloane Kennedy, that there is in existence a fourth portrait of Thoreau, bequeathed to a friend at Concord by Sophia Thoreau, with the request that it should not be reproduced.


  (i) Magazine Articles— (1) published in Thoreau’s lifetime, (2) posthumous.
  (1) Contributions to The Dial, 1840-1844 (those marked with an asterisk are poems):—
  July 1840. “Sympathy,”* “Aulus Persius Flaccus.”
  Jan. 1841. Stanzas, “Nature doth have her dawn each day.”*
  July 1841. “Sic Vita.”*
  Oct. 1841. “Friendship.”*
  July 1842. “Natural History of Massachusetts,” Stanzas quoted in “Prayers.”
  Oct. 1842. “The Black Knight,”* “The Inward Morning,”* “Free Love,”* “The Poet’s Delay,”* “Rumors from an Æolian Harp,”* “The Moon,”* “To the Maiden in the East,”* “The Summer Rain.”*
  Jan. 1843. Translation of Æschylus’s “Prometheus Bound.”
  Apr. 1843. Translation of eleven odes of Anacreon,* “To a Stray Fowl,”* Orphics* (I. “Smoke,” II. “Haze”), “Dark Ages.”
  Oct 1843. “A Winter Walk.”
  Jan. 1844. “Homer, Ossian, Chaucer,” some translations from Pindar.*
  Apr. 1844. “The Herald of Freedom,” Fragments of Pindar.*
  ”A Walk to Wachusett,” Boston Miscellany, 1843.
  ”The Landlord,” “Paradise (to be) Regained,” Democratic Review, Oct., Nov., 1843.
  ”Wendell Phillips before the Concord Lyceum,” The Liberator, March 28, 1845.
  ”Thomas Carlyle and his Works,” Graham’s Magazine, 1847.
  ”Ktaadn and the Maine Woods,” Union Magazine, 1848. [In five parts, headed, (i) The Wilds of the Penobscot, (ii) Life in the Wilderness, (iii) Boating on the Lakes, (iv) The Ascent of Ktaadn, (v) The Return Journey.]
  ”Resistance to Civil Government,” Æsthetic Papers, Boston, 1849.
  ”An Excursion to Canada,” Putnam’s Magazine, 1853. [Unfinished. It comprises the greater part of the first three chapters of the Yankee in Canada.]
  ”Slavery in Massachusetts,” speech at Framingham, July 4, 1854—The Liberator, July 21, 1854.
  ”Cape Cod,” Putnam’s Magazine, 1855. (Unfinished. Chapters 1-4 of Cape Cod.]
  ”Chesuncook,” Atlantic Monthly, June-August, 1858.
  ”A Plea for Captain John Brown,” Echoes from Harpers Ferry, 1860.
  ”The Last Days of John Brown,” read at North Elba, July 41 1860, The Liberator, July 27, 1860.
  ”The Succession of Forest Trees,” New York Tribune, 1860 (also printed in Middlesex Agricultural Transactions).
  (2) “Walking,” “Autumnal Tints,” “Wild Apples,” Atlantic Monthly, June, Oct., Nov., 1862.
  ”Life without Principle,” “Night and Moonlight,” Atlantic Monthly, Oct., Nov., 1863.
  ”The Well fleet Oysterman,” “The Highland Light” (chapters of Cape Cod), Atlantic Monthly, Oct., Dec., 1864.
  ”April Days,” “May Days,” “Days in June” (extracts from Diary), Atlantic Monthly, 1878.
  ”Days and Nights in Concord” (extracts from Diary), Scribner, Sept. 187 8.
(ii) Volumes—(1) published in Thoreau’s lifetime, (2) posthumous.
  (1) A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers, James Munroe and Co., Boston, 1849.
  Walden, or Life in the Woods, Ticknor and Fields, Boston, 1854; with frontispiece sketch of hut, and a chart of Walden Pond.
  (2) Excursions in Field and Forest, Ticknor and Fields, Boston, 1863; with a portrait of Thoreau, and memoir by R. W. Emerson.
  The Maine Woods, Ticknor and Fields, Boston, 1864.
  Cape Cod, Ticknor and Fields, Boston, 1865.
  Letters to Various Persons, Ticknor and Fields, Boston, 1865; selected and edited by R. W. Emerson.
  A Yankee in Canada, with Anti-Slavery and Reform Papers, Ticknor and Fields, Boston, 1866.
  Early Spring in Massachusetts, Houghton, Mifflin, and Co., Boston, 1881; edited by H. G. O. Blake.
  Summer: from the Journal of Henry D. Thoreau, 1884; edited by H. G. O. Blake.
  Winter: from the Journal of Henry D. Thoreau, 1888; edited by H. G. O. Blake.

  Biographical Sketch, by R W. Emerson, prefixed to Thoreau’s Excursions, and in Emerson’s Complete Works, vol. x. pp. 42 1-45 2. A reprint from the Atlantic Monthly, August 1862.
  Thoreau, the Poet-Naturalist, by William Ellery Channing, Boston, 1873. This volume, parts of which had previously appeared in the Boston Commonwealth, contains many extracts from Thoreau’s journal which are not elsewhere printed.
  Thoreau, his Life and Aims, by H. A. Page (A. H. Japp), London, 1878.
  Henry D. Thoreau, by F. B. Sanborn, Boston, 1882. American Men of Letters Series.
  “Thoreau, Henry David,” article by Dr. Frothingham, American Dictionary of Biography.
  ”Thoreau, Henry David,” article by William Sharp, Encyclopædia Britannica, ninth edition.
References to Thoreau may be found in the following works:
  Homes of American Authors, by G. W. Curtis and others, New York, 1858, pp. 233-254, 302.
  Echoes from Harper’s Ferry, edited by James Redpath, Boston, 1860, pp. 437-454.
  The Solitudes of Nature and of Man, by W. R Alger, Boston, 1867, pp. 329-338.
  Passages from Nathaniel Hawthorne’s American Note-Books, Boston, 1868, vol. ii. pp. 61, 96-99, 110-113, 123.
  My Study Windows, by J. R. Lowell, Boston, 1871, pp. 193-209 (reprint of article in North American Review, Oct. 1865).
  Concord Days, by A. Bronson Alcott, Boston, 1873, pp. 11-20, 259-264.
  Memoirs of John Brown, by F. B. Sanborn, Concord, Mass., 1878, pp. 45, 49-51.
  Nathaniel Hawthorne, by Henry James (American Men of Letters), 1880, pp. 93, 94.
  Halcyon Days, by Wilson Flagg, Boston, 1881, pp. 164-168.
  R. W. Emerson: his Life, Writings, and Philosophy, by G. W. Cooke, 1881 (Index).
  Emerson at Home and Abroad, by Moncure D. Conway, 1882, pp. 279-289.
  American Literature, by Prof. John Nichol, Edinburgh, 1882, pp. 313-321.
  Development of English Literature and Language, by A H. Welsh, Chicago, 1882, pp. 409-414.
  Essays reprinted from the Critic, Boston, 1882. “Thoreau’s Wildness,” by John Burroughs, pp. 9-18; “Thoreau’s Unpublished Poetry,” by F. B. Sanborn, pp. 71-78.
  Sonnets and Canzonets, by A Bronson Alcott, Boston, 1882; Sonnet xiv., p. 121.
  Correspondence of Thomas Carlyle and R. W. Emerson, London, 1883 (Index).
  Nathaniel Hawthorne and His Wife, by Julian Hawthorne, Cambridge, Mass., 1884 (Index).
  Life and Letters of John Brown, by F. B. Sanborn, Boston, 1885 (Index).
  Ralph Waldo Emerson, by O. W. Holmes, Boston, 1885 (Index).
  Familiar Studies of Men and Books, by R. L Stevenson, London, 1886, pp. 129-171. (A reprint of article in Cornhill, June 1880.)
  Walden, Camelot Series, London, 1886. Introductory Note by W. H. Dircks.
  American Literature, by C. F. Richardson, New York, 1887 (Index).
  A Memoir of R. W. Emerson, by J.E. Cabot, Boston, 1887, vol. i. p. 282.
  Ralph Waldo Emerson, by D. G. Haskins, Boston, 1887, pp. 119-122.
  American Literature and other Papers, by E. P. Whipple, Boston, 1887, pp. 111, 112.
  England’s Ideal, by Edward Carpenter, London, 1887, pp. 13, 14.
  Short Studies of American Authors, by T. Wentworth Higginson, Boston, 1888, pp. 22-31.
  Life of R. W. Emerson, by Richard Garnett, Great Writers Series, London, 1888, pp. 157-159.
  The Eulogy of Richard Jefferies, by Walter Besant, London, 1888, pp. 221-225.
  Literary Sketches, by H. S. Salt, London, 1888, pp. 124-166. (Reprint of article in Temple Bar, Nov. 1886.)
  Emerson in Concord, by E. W. Emerson, Boston, 1889 (Index).
  Life of Louisa M. Alcott, by E. D. Cheney, London, 1889, pp. 13 6, 139; verses on “Thoreau’s Flute.”

  Indoor Studies, by John Burroughs, Boston, 1889, pp. 1-42. (Reprint of article in Century, July 1882.)
  A Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers, Camelot Series, London, 1889. Introductory Note by W. H. Dircks.
  Liberty and a Living, by Philip G. Hubert, New York, 1889, pp. 171-190.
  Thoreau, a Glimpse, with a Bibliography, by Dr. S. A. Jones, Ann Arbor, Michigan, 1890. (Reprint of articles in Unitarian.)
  The New Spirit, by Havelock Ellis, London, 1890, pp. 90-99.

  Athenæm, Oct. 27, 1849; a Review of the Week on the Concord and Merrimac Rivers. North American Review, 1854 (voL lxxix. p. 536); a Review of Walden, by A. P. Peabody.
  Putnam’s Magazine, Oct. 1854, “A Yankee Diogenes,” by C. F. Briggs.
  Knickerbocker Magazine, 1855 (vol. xlv. p. 235), “A Rural Humbug.”
  Chambers’s Journal, Nov. 1857, “An American Diogenes.”
  Harper’s Magazine, July 1862, reminiscences of Thoreau, by G. W. Curtis (Editor’s Easy Chair).
  Atlantic Monthly, Aug. 1862, Biographical Sketch, by R. W. Emerson. Sept. 1863, “Thoreau’s Flute,” verses by Louisa M. Alcott.
  Fraser’s Magazine, Aug. 1864, “The Transcendentalists of Concord,” by M. D. Conway.
  Saturday Review, Dec. 3, 1864, “An American Rousseau.”
  Atlantic Monthly, March 1865, Review of Cape Cod.
  Christian Examiner, Boston, July 1865, “Thoreau,” by J. A. Weiss.
  North American Review, Oct. 1865, article by J. R. Lowell.
  Fraser’s Magazine, April 1866, “Thoreau,” by M. D. Conway.
  Harper’s Magazine, February 1869, further reminiscences, by G. W. Curtis (Editor’s Easy Chair).
  Every Saturday, Boston, 1870, vol. x. p. 166, “Thoreau,” by J. R. Lowell.
  British Quarterly, Jan. 1874, “Henry Thoreau, the Poet-Naturalist.”
  The Nation, Jan. 8, 1874, “Ellery Channing’s Thoreau.”
  Harper’s Magazine, June 1875, “Concord Books,” with portrait of Thoreau, by Miss H. R. Hudson.
  Dublin University Magazine, Nov. 1877, “Thoreau,” by Mabel Collins.
  Athenæum, Nov. 3, 1877, article by Theodore Watts.
  Academy, Nov. 17, 1877, article by T. Hughes.
  Catholic World, 1878 (vol. xxvii. p. 289), “Henry D. Thoreau and New England Transcendentalism,” by J. V. O’Connor.
  Cornhill Magazine, June 1880, “Henry David Thoreau, his Character and Opinions,” by R. L. Stevenson.
  The Nation, Sept. 2, 1880, “Philosophy at Concord.”
  Penn Monthly, 1880 (vol. ii. p. 794), “A New Estimate of Thoreau,” by W. S. Kennedy.
  The Critic, New York, March 26, 1881, “Thoreau’s Wildness,” by John Burroughs, with portrait; “Thoreau’s Unpublished Poetry,” by F. B. Sanborn.
  Century Magazine, July 1882, “Henry D. Thoreau,” by John Burroughs, with portrait.
  Athenæum, Oct. 28, 1882, article by Theodore Watts.
  The Nation, July 13, 1882, Review of Sanborn’s Thoreau.
  The Spectator, Feb. 17, 1883, “ “ “ “
  The Dial, Chicago, 1883 (vol. iii. p. 70), “Henry D. Thoreau,” by H. N. Powers.
  Academy, Sept. 27, 1884, article by Walter Lewin.
  The Spectator, Jan. 24, 1885.
  Journal of Speculative Philosophy, July 1885, “The Dial,” by G. Willis Cooke.
  Lippincott’s Magazine, 1886 (vol. xxxvii. p. 491), “The Poetry of Thoreau,” by Joel Benton.
  Temple Bar, Nov. 1886, “Henry D. Thoreau,” by H. S. Salt
  The Welcome, London, Nov. 1887, “Henry David Thoreau,” by A. H. Japp, with portrait.
  Fortnightly Review, May 1888, “A Sunday at Concord,” by Grant Allen.
  Good Words, 1888 (vol. xxix. p. 445), “Henry D. Thoreau.”
  The Chautauquan, June 1889, “Henry David Thoreau,” by John Burroughs.
  Saturday Review, Aug. 17, 1889, “A Week on the Concord River.”
  The Century, Feb. 1 890, “Emerson’s Talks with a College Boy,” by C. J. Woodbury.
  The Unitarian, Mich. U.S.A., Feb. and “March 1890, “Thoreau, a Glimpse,” by S. A. Jones.
  The Art Review, London, May 1890, “Thoreau’s Poetry,” by H. S. Salt.

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