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Henry D. Thoreau was arrested and imprisoned in Concord for one night in 1846 for nonpayment of his poll tax. This act of defiance was a protest against slavery and against the Mexican War, which Thoreau and other abolitionists regarded as a means to expand the slave territory. Individual resistance to the State has a long historical foreground, reaching back to Sophocles' play Antigone, through many episodes of religious dissent against authority, to Thoreau's friend Bronson Alcott's arrest in 1843 who also refused to pay his poll tax.
Benjamin D. Maxham daguerreotype of Thoreau, 18 June 1856 (From The Writings of Henry David Thoreau, 1906)
My friend is one who takes me for what I am. — Journal, 23 October 1852